Wednesday, April 1, 2020
I was a sophomore and waiting for the end of year, but also wishing that it wouldnt come because my mother was moving away. We didnt have a perfect relationship, but it was a precious one. It was a mystery to me how I would survive without her, or how I would say good-bye. We decided to have a mother-daughter day. It was to be an extraordinary bonding day, and it was. I was treated like royalty. My mother wanted to make sure I was happy before she left. That seemed impossible, though, because what she was trying to compensate for was the very thing that was making me unhappy. She asked if there was anything I wanted, anything at all. Jokingly, I said, Ive always wanted an eyebrow ring, expecting her to turn me down. When she said, Okay, we can do that, I didnt know how to react, but it didnt take long for excitement to replace my uncertainty. We will write a custom essay sample on Safe in My Own Pierced Skin or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page When we reached a safe, clean piercing place that I had researched, my mother asked for an eyebrow ring thing for my chula. The man at the counter looked at her strangely. I doubt it was because of the Spanglish, but rather wonder how many mothers accompany their daughters for a piercing? Probably very few. My mother checked the tools, the eyebrow ring itself and everything around it. She made sure the gentleman put on the cleanest gloves possible and used the most pristine needle, even though they were all in sterile packaging. When it came down to it, my mother could not bear to watch. The man clamped the area that was going to be pierced and out came the especially sanitary needle. Now there was no turning back. He asked me to count to three. One two It was done before I could finish my countdown. This was a very effective procedure that cut down on my hesitation. A few moments later, there it was two lustrous, silver balls connected by a bar sticking out of my skin in triumph. Wow, wow, wow! was all I could say. I almost like it, my mother proclaimed. I dont like the fact that a piece of metal sticking out of your skin is going to remind you how much I love you, but I almost like it. There I was, walking home, eyebrow first, thinking this definitely was the day my mother had promised, unusual but special. I received mixed reactions to my new accessory. My peers were shocked, fascinated and even speechless. Some wanted to poke at it, as if it were an illusion. I refused, of course, not wanting anything to contaminate my mothers memento. Adults had some negative reactions: You probably got hepatitis and I dont think people should be putting holes in their bodies that dont belong there. I always think, Well, I dont mean to be rude, but I dont suppose you were born with those metal hoops dangling from your ears, were you? With so much hate based on sex and race, I didnt think there would be room for piercing discrimination. I do suppose it emits a kind of image, but isnt that a stereotype? I have told my mother about some people displaying this ignorance. Well, when you go to college or become a professional, youre going to have to take it out, she advises. I highly doubt my piercing impedes any of my skills, my qualifications, or my abilities. So why would I have to remove it? Zora Neale Hurston said, I am not my race, I am me. Well, I am not my piercing or the stereotype that comes with it I am me. I did not do it because of a fad. I did not do it to have a certain image. I am not angry. I am not a criminal. I am neither a poor student nor a bad person. It is jewelry like no other, not because of its location, but because it is a part of me and because of what it means to me. Its a symbol of the bond between my mother and me, which is something I never want to let go.
Saturday, March 7, 2020
Assistance with Footnotes and Endnotes Use Our Online Help How to use footnotes and endnotes. Read about the difference between endnotes and footnotes. Footnotes Vs. Endnotes In higher education, students are required to write papers that incorporate a multitude of sources. And when they do so, the student must cite these sources, in order to give credit to any source they borrowed, summarized or paraphrased. The incorporation of sources adds depth, clarity and a sense of professionalism to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s paper. And to avoid plagiarism, the student must cite every single source they use, or else they risk failing the assignment or worse: expulsion. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE WORKS CITED AND A BIBLIOGRAPHY In most instances, the writer of a paper must use in-text citations, such as: (Thompson, 1998, p. 199). This applies to the MLA (Modern Language Association) style, which is used for most commonly to write papers and citeÃ the sources within the Liberal Arts or the Humanities, as well as for the APA (American Psychological Association) style, which is used to cite sources within the Social Sciences. These two styles are most commonly used in higher education. And whenever a student needs to provide supplementary or explanatory notes when they are citing a source in an academic paper, they either use footnotes or endnotes. The main difference between the two is the placement of the notes: footnotes are placed numerically at the foot (the bottom) of the very same page where direct references are made; while endnotes are placed numerically at the end of the essay or published work on a separate page entitled Ã¢â¬Å"EndnotesÃ¢â¬ or just Ã¢â¬Å"Notes,Ã¢â¬ which can be found just before the Bibliography or page. Footnotes and endnotes are used because long explanatory notes are rather distracting for the reader. If a note is needed, either to further explain a point, translate a word or phrase, or as a digression to explain why perhaps a writer used a certain source in a certain case, it may be easier for the reader to glance down at the bottom of the page they are a currently reading as opposed to turning to the back of the book to read the explanatory note. Both styles, APA and MLA, allow for both kinds of notes Ã¢â¬â endnotes and footnotes Ã¢â¬â although MLA recommends that all notes be listed on a separate page entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Notes.Ã¢â¬ Both style types, however, recommend limited use of both kinds of notes. But the student writing an essay or paper would probably, for efficiency reasons, want to use footnotes. The inclusion to include either kind depends on the student writing the essay or the preference of the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s professor who will be ultimately evaluating the e ssay or paper. Examples ofÃ Footnotes and Endnotes These can either be endnotes or footnotes which refer to cited publications a reader may wish to consult: 1. See Blackmur, especially chapters 3 and 4, for an insightful analysis of this trend. 2. On the problems related to repressed memory recovery, see WollensÃ 120-35; for a contrasting view, see Pyle 43; Johnson, Hull, Snyder 21-35; Krieg 78-91. 3. Several other studies point to this same conclusion. See Johnson and Hull 45-79, KatherÃ 23-31, Krieg 50-57. Also, endnotes and footnotes are occasionally used for explanatory notes (also known as content notes), to refer to brief, additional information that may digress from the main text: 4. In a 1998 interview, she reiterated this point even more strongly: I am an artist, not a politician! (Weller 124). There are also cases when footnotes are indicated not by enumeration but symbols. In Anton ChekhovÃ¢â¬â¢s Ward No. 6 and Other Stories, published and translated by Barnes and Noble Classics, this occurs in the next to last paragraph in part V of his short story Ward No. 6:Ã Ã¢â¬ ¦ Pushkin* suffered terrible agonies before his death Ã¢â¬ ¦ And at the bottom of the page, the footnote reads: *The great Russian poet Aleksandr Pushkin (1799-1837). If you have any problems with using endnotes and footnotes, feel free to contact our experts for getting assistance. Also, you may order any type of academic paper from our writers and dont worry how to do footnotes and endnotes.
Thursday, February 20, 2020
Events Management - Essay Example Event planning is also used within organizations to establish where an organization is at present and where it would like to be in the future, creating strategy and guides as to how to reach goals and objectives (Ivanovic, p 925). Creating a plan will require knowledge of internal and external conditions that may affect any decision that is made. Plans should be seen as directional in nature rather than conclusive and circumstances that may change need to be adapted to. A pestle analysis measures and analyzes factors such as political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal which are extrinsic in nature but are directly related to the success or failure of any industry. By analyzing the industry or event as a whole and producing a picture of all factors we are better able to decide what the future may bring. Event management will and can include many outside factors that will directly affect the planning process. Using a tool such as a pestle analysis will help the planning team identify and plan for all possibilities. Key factors that are identified can be explored and researched and problems can be solved before they occur. Further study can be implemented on key factors by individuals or teams assigned to that area. Depending on the complexity of the event, the event management team may be simple and include one or two individuals or may encompass groups of laborers, volunteers, committees, employees or departments. Recognizing needs will help not only in the planning and implementation of an event but in the budgeting and resource planning of the event as well. All factors noted or suggested in the pestle analysis should be explored and answered fully before the actual event occurrence.Industry trends suggest that it is a suppliers market in Europe and the UK.Whichever event planning model or strategy is used there are many factors that are consistent. Audience identification, advanced problem solving, defining program and budget and deciding on an organizational structure are components of any management plan. Whether it is a small corporate event or large event centered on an annual holiday your clients want to feel individual and as though they are attending something very special. Meetings and conventions where planning has included special amenities and guest allowances are usually those considered more successful than those without. Though events arenÃ¢â¬â¢t always planned with the objective or goal of entertaining a client the clients' comfort and satisfaction should always be a factor in your planning.Ã Whether your event is something for a very small group or a much larger group of individuals each should be treated as exclusive and special.
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
BRITISH STUDIES - Essay Example There are many benefits to being a part of this great institution, and a revamping of the marriage law could be an asset in the improvement of our culture, economy and health. Whereas it can be argued that many aspects of society are required to evolve and grow with the times, the rate and extent to which marriage is able to do this is of the utmost importance as it is one of the most basic traditions and helps to establish one of the most fundamental aspects of modern society. As a function of seeking to understanding and define this institution in the light of the current era, with regards to how much or how little the institution of marriage has been able to evolve with the times, it will be the hope of this author that such an analysis will be capable of presenting a functioning and well argued piece of research into this topic so that the reader might come to a more informed understanding of societal evolution and growth with regards to this most fundamental of traditional socie tal demarcations. As with many traditions and cultural understandings, there can be no denying that the culture of marriage has changed. The cozy imagery of the perfect marriage, as exhibited by the now-comical television shows of the early 1960s and late 1950s have long since faded from memory (Dommaraju, 2009). Fairy tales with stories of love- ever- after were, and to a large part still are, what children are raised on. Within the not so distant past, little girls dreamed of the knight in shining armor, or being brought back to life by a simple kiss from a Prince. When the movie, Ã¢â¬Å"Love StoryÃ¢â¬ , first appeared society was still extremely absorbed in a marriage culture that encouraged and supported getting and staying married until the end of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s days (Fortunato & Archetti, 2010). Within a few years, the womens movement, the pill, the
Monday, January 27, 2020
Mental Health Illness: Good Social Work Practice Good Social Work Practice with Adolescents in the Field of MentalHealth Social works role as the dominant provider of mental healthservices is rooted in history and well-established in the contemporary socialservices landscape. It has been estimated that social workers invest more thanhalf their time in dealing with mental health issues (Howard et al., 1996).Constituting over sixty percent of the mental health workforce, social workersprovide more community-based mental health services than any other professionalgroups. Also, social work has more candidates in preparation for this growtharea than does any other discipline. It is the largest field of practice andthe most-chosen focus of study among social work graduate students (Proctor,2004). The heaviest consumers of social work services also are the most probablevictims of mental illness. The clientele of certain service delivery settings,including homeless shelters, child welfare, out-of-home placement and long-termcare, settings in which social workers predominate, are among the most at riskfor psychiatric disorders and the least likely to gain access to appropriatecare. This highlights the tremendous potential of social service professionalsto reach and to treat individuals with mental health problems. Adolescents are far from immune to these findings. For example, psychiatricimpairment rates for youths in the child welfare system have been estimated atbetween 35-to-50 percent, closely matched by the 30-to-50 percent ratings ofjuveniles in the criminal justice system (Proctor, 2004). Walker (2003)pointed out that one of the few undisputed risk factors for mental illness inadults is unaddressed or inadequately treated psychiatric problems in youths. Thecost of failure to respond effectively to the mental health problems of adolescentsincludes lifetimes of potential productivity lost to consequences such as drugabuse, homelessness and suicide. The following discussion applies relevant theory and research to thequestion of good social work practice with adolescents suffering psychiatricdisorders. A touchstone for good practice can be found in Mowbray and Holters(2002) charge to social work practitioners and researchers that their effortson behalf of the mentally ill should produce: Increased integration within the community (aswith other disability groups); Decreased stigma and discrimination; Increased utilization of effective treatmentoptions; Equitable access to effective, appropriatetreatment. Adapting LeCroys (1992) outline, practices in the broad areas ofassessment, treatment and service delivery are considered. Assessment Practices It generally is agreed that assessment methodologies developed foruse with adults lack efficacy for assessing adolescents. Partly due to youthshigher level of dependency on the environment, a person-in-environmentperspective is a recommended starting point (LeCroy, 1992). In order toaddress the question of how the individuals and the familys coping skillsinteract with the quality of the environment, the social worker must weighresources and support, the barriers and opportunities, the risks and protectivefactors present in that environment. Wakefield et al. (1999) pointed out the pivotal role of a socialworkers attributions in the assessment of adolescent antisocial behavior. Thecomplex web of logic and experience, evidence and intuition, theory and belief,involved in the assessment process is reflected in this study. The researchquestion was two-fold: (1) whether social workers correctly distinguish betweena psychiatric disorder and non-disorder (as defined in DSM-IV) given contextualcues supporting one or the other attribution, and (2) whether judgments bearingon prognosis and appropriate treatment follow these attributions. Finding positivesupport for both questions, the authors called for a focus on this criticaldiscriminate attribution in social work training programs. In working with adolescents, the desirability of a broad-basedassessment, across environments, informants and factors affecting copingability and stress, requires the social worker to possess skills in casemanagement and clinical areas. Research by Elze (2002) highlighted the effectsof the wider social context on adolescent functioning. In this study, sheexamined risk factors for mental health in a sample of self-identified gay,lesbian and bisexual youths. Unlike most research involving this population,her enquiry included the role of factors unrelated to sexual orientation. Shefound that most of the variance in mental health status was accounted for bysocioeconomic level, familial mental health, family functioning and otheridentified life stressors. From a practice perspective, this researchreinforces the importance of assessing a clients overall psychosocialfunctioning, as related to and beyond the limits of the presenting problem. Objective, empirically-based assessment instruments, designed forthe adolescent population, are needed to increase the reliability of thispractice. Most of the instruments in use with adolescent clients today aremodified adult or child-specific protocols, such as the Child BehaviorChecklist or the structured life events interview (LeCroy, 1992). An extremeexample of the caution required in using adapted instruments was presented byElls (2005). The context of this critique was the courts need for assessmentsof psychopathic tendencies in juvenile offenders as a basis for jurisdictionwaiver decisions. Ells reported on assessments using the Hare PsychopathyChecklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV), derived from an instrument developed foradults. She found the tool subject to ethnic bias, developmental bias and alack of predictive value due to unfounded generalizations from research andexperience with adults. She warned that the introduction of psychopathyassessments in juvenile jurisdiction waiv er decisions is premature anddangerously unreliable. Overall, good practice in adolescent assessmentcertainly would benefit from objective, evidence-based protocols, honedespecially for this population group. These are some of the implications for good social work practice inthe mental health assessment of adolescents. Treatment Practices To establish that treatment can be effective with children and adolescents,LeCroy (1992, p. 227) reported the results of two meta-analyses, demonstratingthat average outcomes for those who received treatment were 71-to-79 percentbetter than an untreated control group. In order to establish good practice,however, the social worker must know which treatment approaches are likely toproduce what effects for the adolescent and significant others. The breadth of focus required for assessment is echoed in goodtreatment practice recommendations for working with psychologically impairedadolescents. The keynote appears to be a conceptualization of problems asconstellations of interrelated systems, yielding treatment goals inclusive ofthe family, peer group and community, toward the underpinning of long-termadjustment for the client. This view of good practice is common across theoreticalperspectives. For example, from a social ecological point-of-view, Ungar(2002) left the more mechanistic systems models behind and reflected on the diversity-embracingnew ecology, with community as the central concept in treatment. Steven Walker, whether expounding on community-based applications ofthe psychosocial model (2003) or considering treatment practice from apostmodern perspective (2001), emphasized the necessity for an integrated (ordeconstructed) model of treatment practice, inclusive of a broad panorama ofoptions. Noting that flexible, creative solutions are required by adolescentswith psychological problems, Walker (2003) discussed the United Kingdomsfour-tier model for mental health services to children and adolescents as anopportunityfor intellectual agility on the part of social workers (p. 683). Barths (2003) dissertation on the treatment of college studentswith eating disorders is an interesting example of this eclectic approach totheory and treatment. She made a point of focusing on the entiresocial/medical context of a client, then drawing treatment implications fromany number of theoretical models that fit this context, includingpsychoanalytic, psychosocial and postmodern perspectives. Given the length ofthe usual battle with eating disorders, this assessment treatment assessmentcycle repeats throughout the life of the case, opening new opportunities foreffective intervention at every turn. As with assessment, research is essential for informing goodtreatment practice. The research of Colarossi and Eccles (2003), for example,offered evidence that support from significant others is not a unidimensionalconstruct. They examined the differential effects of support provided byparents, teachers and peers on adolescent depression and self-esteem. Nonfamilialsources of support were found to be more efficacious for improving self-esteem,while depression responded to all support offered, regardless of source. Theresults obtained suggest the need to selectively promote support from varioussources, as opposed to a broad or unfocused social network tactic. In service of good treatment practice, LeCroy (1992) lists a numberof promising approaches (p. 227) that social workers should include in theirtreatment options toolkit. These include behavioral treatment (or competencytraining) for antisocial problems, functional family therapy, parent-managementtraining, home-based treatment, training in social skills and problem solving,psychopharmacology and psychotherapy or IPT-A (interpersonal psychotherapy foradolescents). These are examples of some good social work practice guidelines formental health treatment of adolescents, derived, to a large extent, from theoryand research. Putting assessment decisions and treatment choices into actionis the role of service delivery systems. Practices Related to Service Delivery Considering systems of service delivery prompts the realizationthat, in terms of good practice, social workers must be proficient in an arrayof interventions beyond the confines of direst treatment. In order tocoordinate multiple services and monitor systems of care, critical casemanagement competencies are required. The significance of a well-coordinatedsystem of care must be salient for every social worker involved in servicedelivery. One of the most difficult decisions in this arena is when to utilizesubstitute care. Inpatient or residential treatment, foster care, respitecare, partial hospitalization and day treatment, define points along thissubstitute care continuum. Especially in light of research on the importance ofsocial support and of home and community-based treatment, moving the adolescentinto a substitute care setting seems particularly invasive. Research studies and reports can help inform the decision to utilizepsychiatric inpatient treatment. For example, Pottick et al. (1999) helped tountangle the many variables affecting adolescent length of stay in thesefacilities. Looking at factors that influence the occurrence and timing ofdischarge, they found that facility type was significant. Stays in generalhospitals with psychiatric services were much shorter than in public or privatepsychiatric hospitals or multi-service mental health centers. Also, insurancewas a factor; privately-insured youths stayed longer than did publicly-fundedor uninsured adolescents. Having a previous hospitalization predicted a longerstay, as did the diagnosis of conduct disorder (versus depression). Althoughthis research does not speak to the quality of care, and given that moreoutcomes research is needed, the awareness of contingencies disclosed by thisstudy can aid a social worker in forming valid expectations and making aninformed decision for th e client. Romansky et al. (2003) looked at factors influencing readmission to psychiatrichospital care for children and adolescents who were in the child welfaresystem. Their findings highlighted the significance of enabling factorspresent for these children, including living arrangement, geographic region andpost-hospitalization services. The focus must be on community-based servicesto prevent readmission for these adolescents. On a similar note, a review of the research on inpatient treatmentin child and adolescent psychiatry (Blanz Schmidt, 2000) cautiouslyconcluded that hospitalization can be beneficial given that effective treatmentand discharge planning are included. These researchers pointed to acontinuum-of-care model as crucial in facilitating integration/coordinationbetween inpatient interventions and aftercare services. While research such as this can aid the social worker in making thedifficult inpatient care decisions, there are myriad other placementconsiderations that should rely on good practice to advantage adolescents inneed of mental health care. The keynote for good practice remains choosing theleast restrictive, appropriate environment. To make this choice for a givenadolescent, the social worker must be familiar with the placement optionsavailable and the treatment philosophy of each program, as well as the uniqueconfiguration of problem dimensions particular to that client. LeCroy (1992) suggested that social work should try to developobjective tools to assist in meeting the good practice guidelines for mentalhealth placement decisions. He offered the Arizona Decision Making Tree (p.228) as a potential model for such a tool. This tool is used for theassignment of juvenile offenders to five levels of care, varying inrestrictiveness and program components. At best, a fine balance in judgment is required to match a givenadolescent, at a specific point in time, with a certain treatment setting,providing the best therapeutic approach for the clients particularconstellation of problems. A control problem versus learning disabilities isonly one example of how varied and far-ranging the mix of relevant factors canbe. At times, there may be a need for a more restrictive setting as afunction of risk factors in the home/community environment. A study by Ruffoloand colleagues (2004) addressed such a situation. To inform the design of moreeffective mental health intervention (and prevention) programs, they examinedthe risk and resiliency factors for groups of delinquent, diverted andhigh-risk adolescent girls. All these girls were either involved in thejuvenile justice system, or at risk of involvement, and were receivingresidential services in either a home or community-based, open or closedsetting. Girls in the closed residential setting (the most restrictive) reportedhigher levels of depression, family discord, sexual abuse, negative lifeevents, involvement in special education programs, and more delinquent andnegative coping behaviors. In other words, the girls with the greatest riskfactors present in their home and community were placed in the most restrictivesetting. The authors concluded that t hese placement decisions reflected anappropriate appraisal of the level of need. These are a few of the factors available to guide the development ofgood social work practice in the coordination of service delivery systems. Conclusion This paper reviewed a portion of the theory and researchcontributing to good social work practice standards in the area of adolescentmental health. While accomplishments in this area are commendable, muchremains to be done. More well-designed and well-controlled research is needed to weighthe effectiveness of adolescent service models, especially with regard tolong-term outcomes. As effective systems of care are identified, they must be developedinto practice guidelines and supported by policy and funding. Social workers are challenged to work for increased, improved,accessible services for adolescents, to educate the community and mobilizestakeholders, to develop and to implement effective strategies for preventionand intervention. References Barth,F.D. (2003). Separate but not alone: Separation-individuation issues incollege students with eating disorders. Clinical Social Work Journal,31(2), pp. 139-153. Blanz,B. Schmidt, M.H. (2000). Preconditions and outcome of inpatienttreatment in child and adolescent psychiatry. Journal of Child Psychologyand Psychiatry, 41(6), pp. 703-712. Colarossi,L.G. Eccles, J.S. (2003). Differential effects of support providers onadolescents mental health. Social Work Research, 27(1), pp. 19-30. Ells,L. (2005). Juvenile psychopathy: The hollow promise of prediction. ColumbiaLaw Review, 105(1), pp. 158-208. Elze,D.E. (2002). Risk factors for internalizing and externalizing problems amonggay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents. Social Work Research, 26(2),pp. 89-99. Howard,K.I., Cornille, T.A., Lyons, J.S., Vessey, J.T., Lueger, R.J., Saunders,S. (1996). Patterns of mental health service utilization. Archives ofGeneral Psychiatry, 53, pp. 696-703. LeCroy,C.W. (1992). Enhancing the delivery of effective mental health services tochildren. Social Work, 37(3), pp. 225-231. Mowbray,C.T. Holter, M.C. (2002). Mental health and mental illness: Out of thecloset? Social Science Review, 76(1), pp. 135-179. Pottick, K.J., Hansell, S.,Miller, J.E., Davis, D.M. (1999). Factors associated with inpatient length of stay forchildren and adolescents with serious mental illness. Social Work Research,23(4), pp. 213-224. Proctor, E. (2004). Researchto inform mental health practice: Social works contributions. Social WorkResearch, 28(4), pp. 195-197. Romansky, J.B., Lyons, J.S.,Lehner, R.K., West, C.M. (2003). Factors related to psychiatric hospitalreadmission among children and adolescents in state custody. PsychiatricServices, 54(3), pp. 356-362. Ruffolo, M.C., Sarri, R., Goodkind, S. (2004). Study of delinquent, diverted, and high-riskadolescent girls: Implications for mental health intervention. Social WorkResearch, 28(4), pp. 237-244. Ungar, M. (2002). A deeper,more social ecological social work practice. Social Science Review,76(3), pp. 480-497. Wakefield, J.C., Kirk, S.A.,Pottick, K.J., Hsieh, D. (1999). Disorder attribution and clinical judgment in theassessment of adolescent antisocial behavior. Social Work Research, 23(4),pp. 227-238. Walker, S. (2001). Tracingthe contours of postmodern social work. British Journal of Social Work,31, pp. 29-39. Walker, S. (2003). Socialwork and child mental health: Psychosocial principles in community practice. BritishJournal of Social Work, 33(5), pp. 673-687.
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Evaluate the claim that modern political parties are failing to perform their traditional functions :: essays research papers
To answer this question, we most identify the key roles of a political party in the political system. Political Parties must identify their leaders who in turn, become the offered leaders to take control of the country. Skills of persuasion, organisation of support, public speaking, committee work, and public campaigning are all essential qualities for leaders of political parties. Currently, the leaders of the Labour Party, ConservativeÃ¢â¬â¢s and Liberal Democrats represent a range of viewpoints, giving the UK voter a choice, depending upon their opinions. Political parties nominate individuals to important positions in public services e.g. hospital trusts. They also choose the minister for that service; e.g. Education minister Jane Davidson for the Welsh Assembly. In general these choices are sensible and not overly radical. Therefore we can see that this traditional function is being performed accurately. Political Parties also are responsible for creating legislation, a vital job involving producing coherent policy programmes. A recent example of British Government doing this, is the 2001 Terrorism Act and the soon to be announced 2005 terrorist legislation. Parties are creating necessary and modern legislation, so it cannot be said that they are failing in this aspect. Parties also organise the timetable of Parliament whilst supplying members to the various committees, produced to reach decisions. Timetabling is obviously going ahead, or there would be no Parliament. The Neill committee, created in 1994 discusses the funding of political parties and the equality. Political Parties also scrutinise the other parties work in the Parliament successfully. By successful, I mean disputing other parties suggestions, arguing for changes in the law. Daily disputes break out in the House of Commons between MPÃ¢â¬â¢s, indicating a good scrutiny of legislation.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
Road Transport Corporation (hereinafter referred to as the Ã¢â¬ËCorporationÃ¢â¬â¢), has been constituted under the Road Transport Corporation Act, 1950. The respondent which is a Trade Union of the appellant-Corporation, filed an Application before the Labour Court, Dehradun under Section 11-C of the U. P. Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 read with Section 13A of the Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 1946, praying for a declaration that the 15 persons who were appointed on contract basis as Ã¢â¬ËdriversÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËconductorsÃ¢â¬â¢ as shown in the annexed chart, be declared as regular and substantive workmen of the Corporation. It was also prayed in the said Application that the concerned workmen be given all the benefits and facilities of regular employees. The aforesaid Application was allowed by the Labour Court, Dehradun by its order dated 19. 9. 2001. The Labour Court directed that the concerned workmen be given the minimum wages admissible to the regular employees in the pay scales of Ã¢â¬ËdriversÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËconductorsÃ¢â¬â¢. The Labour Court also held that the said workmen are employees of the Corporation. It is not disputed that the concerned workmen were appointed on contract basis. Before the Labour Court, the Corporation had contended that Rule 2 of U. P. S. R. T. C Employees (Other than Officers) Service Regulations, 1981 (hereinafter referred to as the Ã¢â¬ËRegulationsÃ¢â¬â¢) clearly mentions that these regulations shall not apply to employees working on contract basis. The persons working on contract basis filed Writ Petition No. 41349/1999 Kanchi Lal and others vs. U. P. S. R. T. C before the Allahabad High Court for grant of same benefits as the regular employees of the Corporation, but the said writ petition had been dismissed. However, the bjection of the Corporation was rejected by the Labour Court. It filed a writ petition thereafter before the High Court which was dismissed by the impugned judgment. It was contended in the writ petition by the appellant that the concerned workmen had not been selected in terms of the process of selection required for appointment of regular employees and hence they cannot be directed to be given minimum pay scales of regular employees. It was also contended that the Labour Court acted beyond its jurisdiction by passing the impugned order dated. In our opinion, the Labour Court could not have granted the relief it granted by the order dated 19. 9. 2001, as that could only have been granted on a regular reference under Section 4-K of the U. P. Industrial Disputes Act or under Section 10 of the Industrial Disputes Act. A perusal of the order of the Labour Court dated 19. 9. 2001 shows that it has not referred to any standing order of the appellant. On the other hand, paragraph 3 of the said order refers to Rule 2 of the 1981 Regulations which clearly provides that the Regulations do not apply to employees engaged on contract basis. In our opinion, the Labour Court cannot amend the Regulations while hearing an application under Section 11-C of the Industrial Disputes Act. As already stated above, the scope of Section 11-C is limited to decide a question arising out of an application or interpretation of a standing order and the Labour Court cannot go beyond the scope of Section 11-C of the U. P. Industrial Disputes Act. For the reasons given above, the appeals are allowed. The impugned judgment of the High Court as well as the order of the Labour Court dated 19. 9. 2001 are set aside. However, it is open to the concerned workmen to raise their grievances before the concerned authority under Section 4-K of the U. P. Industrial Disputes Act or under Section 10 of Industrial Disputes Act, as the case may be, and if the State Government refers such a dispute to the Labour Court or Tribunal, we hope that the same will be decided expeditiously. No costs